Barrufeta bravensis is a planktonic, marine dinoflagellate found in the Mediterranean Sea (Nagore Sampedro et al. 2011).
From Nagore Sampedro et al. 2011:
Cells oval in outline, dorsoventrally flattened, 22-35 µm long and 16-25 µm wide. Epicone and hypocone are similar in length. Epicone is rounded and frequently found showing a slight protuberance. An apical groove that starts in the upper part of the intersection between the sulcus and the cingulum, runs diagonally to the anterior right side, and then it turns counterclockwise around the apex, forming a wide transversal loop and ending near the right side of its origin. Hypocone is smoothly runcate and slightly bilobate due to the sulcus extension until the antapex. Cingulum is descending and displaced by 1.5-2 cingulum widths. Numerous small yellow-brownish chloroplasts, with many of them radiating from two large pyrenoids, are equatorially located with one on each side of the sulcus. Peridinin occurs as the major light-harvesting accessory pigment. Nucleus is more or less centered in the epicone of the cell.
From Nagore and Sampedro et al. 2011:
The cells are slightlyelongated and dorsoventrally ﬂattened (Fig. 2C),26.9 ± 3 lm (22–35.4 lm, n = 50) long and 20.1 ±2.3 lm (16–25.3 lm, n = 50) wide. The length ⁄width ratio ranges from 1.2 to 1.5 (n = 50). The epicone and hypocone are similar in length (Fig. 2, A,D, and E). The sulcus extends to the antapex sometimes giving the hypocone a slightly bilobate shape(Fig. 2, A, D, and E). The apex is generally roundedand frequently has a slight protuberance that islimited by the apical groove (Figs. 2, A and B; 4, Band E). The descending cingulum is deep and wideand displaced by 1.5–2 cingulum widths, which represent 16% to 26% of the body length (Fig. 4, Aand B). The sulcus has a small intrusion in the epicone and runs deep and straight to the antapex.
The cells are slightlyelongated and dorsoventrally ﬂattened,26.9 ± 3 µm (22–35.4 µm, n = 50) long and 20.1 ±2.3 µm (16–25.3 µm, n = 50) wide. The length ⁄width ratio ranges from 1.2 to 1.5 (n = 50). The epicone and hypocone are similar in length. The sulcus extends to the antapex sometimes giving the hypocone a slightly bilobate shape. The apex is generally rounded and frequently has a slight protuberance that is limited by the apical groove. The descending cingulum is deep and wide and displaced by 1.5–2 cingulum widths, which represent 16% to 26% of the body length. The sulcus has a small intrusion in the epicone and runs deep and straight to the antapex. The epicone has an apical groove, Smurf-cap shaped, running counterclockwise around the apex. The proximal part of the groove starts at the intrusion of the sulcus in the epicone and then ascends diagonally for a short distance toward the right anterior side of the cell. The groove then turns toward the left and crosses a large part of the epicone across the ventral part of the cell, surrounds the apex of the cell, and returns parallel to the cingulum across the dorsal side of the epicone. Lastly, it turns toward the ventral part, ﬁnishing near its origin, without reaching to the sulcus of the cell. The apical groove consists of three elongated vesicles, the middle one ornamented with small knobs. The cell surface is covered with polygonal amphiesmal vesicles (usually quadrangular or pentagonal) that do not show a regular pattern, whereas the border of the girdle presents an array of well-aligned rectangular vesicles. The longitudinal ﬂagellum varies from 1 to 1.5 times the body length.
From Nagore Sampedro et al. 2011:
Barrufeta bravensis is a part of the marine plankton. High cell densities (>106 cell L-1) of B. bravensis have been detected in coastal waters during the summer months (June - September) at water temperatures of 20°C-27°C and salinities of 36.5-38.4. This species has been found accompanying blooms of Alexandrium taylori at beaches located inside semi-enclosed bays.